FACES OF WAR
CHAPTER 2
Second occupation
CHAPTER 3
Resque
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The World War II has left an indelible mark in the history of our country and our city. Rostov-on-Don is among the top ten the most affected cities.
Memories of the war are not basic numbers, they are uppermost histories of people, their memories, faces of our fellow countrymen — faces of war.
NOVEMBER 1941
November 1941 — 27th month of the World War II. A profound crisis in which the Red Army was has not yet been overcome:
the Germans continued to advance in all strategic directions.
On November 5, units of the Army Group "South" led by Field Marshal von Rundstedt, launched an active offensive towards Rostov-on-Don. The main objective of the offensive was Caucasus and its oil. The city was protected by the 56th Army led by General Remezov.
sq.m. of soil was dug out during the construction of fortifications.
Tens of thousands of residents of Rostov during the construction of fortifications and defenses dug anti-tank ditches and escarps, trenches and shelters for the military equipment, dugouts and observation posts.
Mikhail Vdovin
resident of Rostov-on-Don
sq.m. of soil was dug out during the construction of fortifications.
Tens of thousands of residents of Rostov during the construction of fortifications and defenses dug anti-tank ditches and escarps, trenches and shelters for the military equipment, dugouts and observation posts.
Mikhail Vdovin
resident of Rostov-on-Don
All residents were mobilized for construction of fortifications.
Defenses were built in Rostov and in its suburbs. Working hours norm was declared. If one didn't have a work delivery statement, he wouldn't get a bread-ticket.
— Mikhail Vdovin
Residents of Rostov building fortifications on the outskirts of Rostov.

Mom was going out to dig anti-tank ditches, behind Chkalovskiy. Digging work was mainly assigned to old men and teens.
In 1941 I was 12 years old. My mom had two more children: Sasha - ten, Vera - four, Nadia was one year and eight months only.
— L. Shabalina
We were digging until late night. There and back home - walking. Trams were not operating. Later on, a soldier has told me that trenches didn't stop tanks. A convoy approached, the lead tank shot a trench in one place showering the ground, then dragged it making an exit and entrance, and the convoy continued to advance.
Residents of Rostov building fortifications on the outskirts of Rostov.
All residents were mobilized for construction of fortifications.
Defenses were built in Rostov and in its suburbs. Working hours norm was declared. If one didn't have a work delivery statement, he wouldn't get a bread-ticket.
— Mikhail Vdovin
Mom was going out to dig anti-tank ditches, behind Chkalovskiy. Digging work was mainly assigned to old men and teens.
In 1941 I was 12 years old. My mom had two more children: Sasha - ten, Vera - four, Nadia was one year and eight months only.
— L. Shabalina
We were digging until late night. There and back home - walking. Trams were not operating. Later on, a soldier has told me that trenches didn't stop tanks. A convoy approached, the lead tank shot a trench in one place showering the ground, then dragged it making an exit and entrance, and the convoy continued to advance
These fortifications of 115 km long alongside river Don via Novocherkassk, and alongside river Tuzlov until Generalskoye village, alongside the Donskoy Kamenniy Chulek draw until Khapry village. These were the main defense lines of the city.
Defense line of Rostov-on-Don.
Второй потерей была овчарка Рекс. Это был красивый крупный пес. Его мобилизовали в армию: «Ловить парашютистов».
After digging trenches in suburbs, the construction of barricades on city streets has begun. The streets were blocked in a way that a vehicle couldn't pass going straight, it had to steer between two barricades, the passage was very narrow. It was assumed that when passing through, a vehicle was vulnerable and ease to fire. Barricades had slits to mount a machine gun on it. Dismantled old houses into bricks and constructed these barricades
— A. Karapetyan
These fortifications of 115 km long alongside river Don via Novocherkassk, and alongside river Tuzlov until Generalskoye village, alongside the Donskoy Kamenniy Chulek draw until Khapry village. These were the main defense lines of the city.
Defense line of Rostov-on-Don.
Второй потерей была овчарка Рекс. Это был красивый крупный пес. Его мобилизовали в армию: «Ловить парашютистов».
After digging trenches in suburbs, the construction of barricades on city streets has begun. The streets were blocked in a way that a vehicle couldn't pass going straight, it had to steer between two barricades, the passage was very narrow. It was assumed that when passing through, a vehicle was vulnerable and ease to fire. Barricades had slits to mount a machine gun on it. Dismantled old houses into bricks and constructed these barricades.
— A. Karapetyan
Many evacuated. And our huge yard was entirely littered with belongings that couldn't be taken. There mostly were a lot of books — classics of Marxism-Leninism and other political literature... We, the boys, scavenged these piles for a long time, looking for books with images. Among this paper waste we have found a letter. Read it. It shocked us. The letter was from Moscow. The most frightening: it said that Moscow is in panic, there is an evacuation. And it was recommended for and recipient to leave Rostov immediately. We were raised in the spirit of patriotism and didn't understand where the panic came from, especially in Moscow. The address was our house address and the recipient's surname was Kaganovich. This is where we got lost. For the sake of precaution, (probably heard echoes of 1937) we decided to burn the letter so nobody finds out. After few years I wondered if Kaganovich ever lived here and who he was. Yes, indeed, in tenth entrance, on the second floor one of the brothers of Lazar Kaganovich was residing. Many, who are currently residing there, know this family. The family after the evacuation returned to Rostov, however they were living in another house. Although, some relatives of this family are still residing there.
— A. Agafonov
The most frightening: it said that Moscow is in panic, there is an evacuation.
Many evacuated. And our huge yard was entirely littered with belongings that couldn't be taken. There mostly were a lot of books — classics of Marxism-Leninism and other political literature... We, the boys, scavenged these piles for a long time, looking for books with images. Among this paper waste we have found a letter. Read it. It shocked us. The letter was from Moscow. The most frightening: it said that Moscow is in panic, there is an evacuation. And it was recommended for and recipient to leave Rostov immediately. We were raised in the spirit of patriotism and didn't understand where the panic came from, especially in Moscow. The address was our house address and the recipient's surname was Kaganovich. This is where we got lost. For the sake of precaution, (probably heard echoes of 1937) we decided to burn the letter so nobody finds out. After few years I wondered if Kaganovich ever lived here and who he was. Yes, indeed, in tenth entrance, on the second floor one of the brothers of Lazar Kaganovich was residing. Many, who are currently residing there, know this family. The family after the evacuation returned to Rostov, however they were living in another house. Although, some relatives of this family are still residing there.
— A. Agafonov
The most frightening: it said that Moscow is in panic, there is an evacuation.
I vividly remember the sounds of air raid alerts. On the radio, the speaker's stressed voice endlessly repeats:
Citizen! Air raid alert! Air raid alert!
And factory whistles begun buzzing nastily. Trains begun screaming tearfully and shortly. Longing pulls at heartstrings. The insides go down somewhere. And lips involuntarily whisper a prayer.
— Evgeniy Komissarov
Граждане! Воздушная тревога! Воздушная тревога!
I clearly remember the first "baptism". When walking around I've noticed that passerbys begun to bustle. They look at the sky. I see them, flying! Nine heavy German bombardiers are flying in V formation. Usually during this time everyone cramps closer to shelters, crevices. I as well ran towards my shelter. My dad built it in the yard. It was a real dugout - a trench, covered with wood and logs, showered with soil. There we were storing food, water, candles. In case we get tumbled down. We had an emergency exit. It rested against a fence. We were like gophers; we could watch what was happening on the street through the fence slots by leaning out of the shelter. Later, when the war entered the city, we saw the true value of our construction.

I was already in the yard when I heard the whistle of falling bombs, I ran into the house to warn my parents, and the first bombs began to blast right in our yard. We were about to run to the dugout; however, it was too late. It blasted so hard that it smashed all windows around Separate explosions merged into a single thunder. The house is all shaking. The floor was all of a dither. We holed up in a corner, behind a wardrobe. It drops on us. We hold it with our hands. Mom is crossing herself. Lamp shade is dangling under the ceiling. Plaster is crumbling on our heads. Chunks of soil and stone get in through broken windows. Stench of smoke and gas all over. The feeling of some dumb animal despair. And a thought: "May it end sooner! Any end would do, just end sooner!" When it all ended, we went out to the yard, we saw the yard completely gone. Logs all around. Freshly dug soil all over. The fence is on the ground. Wood hanging on wires. Smoke and burnt stink.

We came into senses and started to sort out: why this German was bombing us that hard, what kind of object did he find here? Realized really quickly: planes were attracted by a very tall pipe sticking out right next to our house. It belonged to a very small foundry. We, all residents of the street, were begging the principle of the "pipe" to take it away, so that it doesn't appeal the German planes as a tasty target. Principle was a dead set on it: "I can't, - he said, - I have a technological process bound to this pipe". We: "To hell with your processes, life of people is worthier". A bomb has settled our dispute. During the next bombing, the pipe was destroyed by a blast wave.
— A. Agafonov
And a thought: "Let it end sooner! Any end would do, just end sooner!"
We were living in a country-side, in a Red city-garden, on 125 2-ya Koltsevaya str. So, I have a view of a "man from country-side".

The city was getting prepared for defense. We had members of a construction battalion stay in our house three times. They were digging trenches and constructing defenses.

They usually had a wheat soup for lunch, they called it "blonde-soup". And said that it makes guts stick together. Back then the food was still available. My mom was bringing home giant carps and roasted them in a box.

Soldiers were coming in the evening all exhausted, cold, and as they said were "warming their hearts with borscht". Among them there was a huge illiterate guy Yasha, he was from Ural. Georgian guy Shota was teaching me how to play on cymbals. There also were Kostya, Vanya, Panteley Karpovich. I asked him: "How many people are in the company?" He was laughing: "A company has choir singers" We became friends. When they left, my mom was corresponding with them. Almost all of them died near Taganrog. Vanya gone missing, Panteley Karpovich returned without a leg - he was telling stories about our residents.
— V. Semina-Kononykhina
"How many soldiers are in the company?"
He was laughing:
"A company has choir singers"

One of the bombs, weighted about half a ton, somehow stuck into the ground inappropriately. Entered angle-wise. Turned. And almost came to the surface. Didn't explode though. And someone was supposed to disarm it. But how? A poor policeman came in. "I'll shoot it down", - he said. The field was fenced. They dug up the bomb to make the detonator visible Covered half of the body of the bomb with waste and soil. Laid logs. Built a homegrown construction. So that shrapnel don't shatter. Policeman stationed nearer, next to it. Laid in a groove and started shooting a bomb from a rifle. And finally, he got it. Blasted. Though not the way everyone was expecting. Due to this "state-of-the-art" construction, blast wave slashed towards a policeman. And took it away somewhere. He was alive, though began to stutter.
— Evgeniy Komissarov
A poor policeman came in. "I'll shoot it down", - he said.

During the first half of November 1941, German army threatened to capture Shakhtinsk industrial district and to seize Rostov and the strategic Voronezh — Rostov railway line.

In the end of November, tank corps of Kleist continued the offensive and on November 21 seized Rostov-on-Don, throwing back the 56th detached army to the South across river Don and to the East towards Novocherkassk.
Пелагея Климова
An artillery battery of the 606th rifle regiment led by Lieutenant S. Oganov
and Political instructor S. Vavilov was distinguished near the mound of Berber-Oba.

Sixteen artillery men at the expense of their life repulsed an assault of fifty tanks, twelve of which were burned and eighteen knocked out. Heroes - artillery men were posthumously awarded with decorations and medals, Oganov and Vavilov were awarded with the titles of Heroes of the Soviet Union. Streets of Rostov bear their names, and a magnificent memorial was installed at the place of their decease.
S. Oganov and S. Vavilov
4 ZIS-3 artillery guns of Oganov's battery
Knocked out and wrecked
PzIII German tanks
Defense line of Rostov-on-Don
Retreat of the Soviet troops
Offensive of the Wehrmacht
свидетель первой оккупации
During the first half of November 1941, German army threatened to capture Shakhtinsk industrial district and to seize Rostov and the strategic Voronezh — Rostov railway line.

In the end of November, tank corps of Kleist continued the offensive and on November 21 seized Rostov-on-Don, throwing back the 56th detached army to the South across river Don and to the East towards Novocherkassk.

Пелагея Климова
A artillery battery of the 606th rifle regiment led by Lieutenant S. Oganov and Political instructor S. Vavilov was distinguished near the mound of Berber-Oba.

Sixteen artillery men at the expense of their life repulsed an assault of fifty tanks, twelve of which were burned and eighteen knocked out. Heroes — artillery men were posthumously awarded with decorations and medals, Oganov and Vavilov were awarded with the titles of Heroes of the Soviet Union. Streets of Rostov bear their names, and a magnificent memorial was installed at the place of their decease.
S. Oganov и S. Vavilov
4 ZIS-3 artillery guns of Oganov's battery
Knocked out and wrecked
PzIII German tanks
Defense line of Rostov-on-Don
Retreat of the Soviet troops
Offensive of the Wehrmacht
свидетель первой оккупации
There was no heavy urban warfare in the city. We later saw our tanks knocked out on the streets. I've seen a German whippet. It had its front side of the turret shot through We got inside it and noticed the blood of Germans. Opened a glove compartment, there were thigh-highs, perfume. Looked like Nazis stole them and carried with themselves. Perhaps, gifts for their would-be girlfriends... Our surrounded soldiers were still in the city, residents were hiding them.
— V. Lemeshev

Pelageya Klimova
witness of the first occupation
There was no heavy urban warfare in the city. We later saw our tanks knocked out on the streets. I've seen a German whippet. It had its front side of the turret shot through We got inside it and noticed the blood of Germans. Opened a glove compartment, there were thigh-highs, perfume. Looked like Nazis stole them and carried with themselves. Perhaps, gifts for their would-be girlfriends... Our surrounded soldiers were still in the city, residents were hiding them.
— V. Lemeshev

Pelageya Klimova
witness of the first occupation
There was no urban warfare, despite the city's preparation for defense. We had a barricade on the corner of Voroshilovskiy avenue and Krasnoarmeyskaya street. It was blocking the whole street, although there were small passages for pedestrians inside, and there was an extensible joint for trams to pass. Such barricades were in other places as well. But the thing is nobody was ever using them. When our troops were retreating, cars dragged on. We rarely saw trucks. Barricades did only harm. Retreating soldiers didn't know how to get around them and how to get to the crossing. Although, there was no need for a crossing, Don froze. But how to get to Don? Try getting through one street - blocked, try another - blocked too. The by-pass was quite far. Indeed, we were showing the way. But some were dropping cars.

On the corner of the street there stood one, with shells. When Germans arrived, they ordered to drop them into the anti-tank ditch. It was dug on the other side of the street. There once were private houses, now there is a Regional trade council stationed. We've never seen killed Germans. Although we saw two Red Army soldiers frozen to death on Teatralnaya square. Moreover, one of them was lying in a way as if he was covering his eyes with hands. We looked under his hand, turns out, a bullet got him right between his eyes.
— A. Agafonov

Для нас было интересно: что же это за немцы?
The first occupation was fast and strange. At the beginning, the city was heavily bombarded. And on November 19, 1941 - silence. The only thing we heard: in the area of Bolshiye Saly, from the Voenved direction, and current Northern residential area was a heavy cannonade. That's were Germans were advancing. Our soldiers successfully retreated across the Don. There were no urban warfare and battles for each house. And the images that remained from those days are the images of the seize of Rostov, not it's defense of November 1941. The first seize of Rostov wasn't easy for Germans, thought the city didn't get much damage as well. The mood, especially our, the boys, was kind of unclear. We were wondering: who are these Germans? And if during the first time the German troops entered the city, as they did during the second occupation, we, probably, wouldn't have been afraid of them that much. But those who entered were soldiers of SS, their motorized infantry. They had embroideries on their sleeves: "Adolf Hitler" I saw such embroideries many times. They were matched by height: large, many of them, especially officers, had rings which had a "Death's head" depicted. These rings were made of either silver or aluminum."
— Shagan Chagaev
We were wondering: who are these Germans?
The first occupation lasted eight days and went down in history as the "bloody week".


The "Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler" division executed and tortured hundreds of civilians: old men, women, children, especially in the Proletarskiy district of the city.

Near the house No. 2 of the 1st Sovetskaya street there was a pile of dead corpses of the residents of this house; 61 people were murdered on the 36-liniya str, near a daycare, on the corner of 40-liniya str Nazis opened fire towards people standing of line for bread, murdered 43 people: old men, women and children; up to 200 residents were shot to death from machine guns by Nazi on Armenian cemetery.

Ruined building in the city center
Debris removal by residents of Rostov-on-Don
Nazi tanks on the streets of Rostov
Ruined building of the Central Department Store

50 people, old men, children indiscriminately — for one Nazi.
All were afraid of Germans: for a small guilt — execution on the spot. Occupants were behaving brutally if their men were killed. One German was murdered close to the forest school on the 34-liniya street, they immediately brought hostages out and executed them. 50 people, old men, children indiscriminately — for one Nazi.
— Yuliya Turbina
I was 23 years old. Ihad a child, that's why Itried not to go outside as rarely as possible. I was mainly informed about the happenings via rumors. I was mostly shocked when learned about the shooting of residents near the Revolution park. Someone murdered a German officer, and the same night all residents of the block were dragged and shot. Nazis wanted to intimidate the population. To show how brutal their behavior could get, setting up their "new order".
— V. Varivoda
German soldiers were also pillaging shops. On the corner of Krepostnoy and Bolshaya Sadovaya streets, where I was living, there was a store with a large basement. German discovered a barrel there. Made a hole with his knife - turns out it was a jam. And started to call us: "Come! Come!", so we can help him to roll out this barrel.

Germans had a very light outfit. Mainly were wearing shoes. However, November was very cold. You could tell from their outfit that they were not prepared for a battle during the winter.
— Gergiy Khazagerov
We were running towards the park where corpses of the executed were. And at that time, we had a desperate thought - revenge. There were trucks often passing through the Krasnoarmeyskaya street. Despite the freezing weather, motorcycles were passing as well. Under a cap or a helmet, they tied up their heads with a scarf. We climbed to the third floor, mounted a machine gun on the site which we found in the communications regiment. Started to argue about who will be shooting. Suddenly, Pashka Kostin, he was the most desperate one, wasting no time grabbed the machine gun. Nobody argued with him, because he might have as well box the ear.

Just we were about to wait for a motorcycle, a door on the upper floor opened and a man came out of the door. He realized what was going on there in a moment. He fell upon us, without picking up his words. The idea we had was: we start shooting and run up to the attic. Attics were interconnected thorough the whole huge house. We could've got out somewhere on Voroshilovskiy. It looked as if we secured ourselves, though didn't expect this man to appear. We ran downwards as he was blocking the upstairs. And we, indeed, left the machine gun. He took it. Cursing he shouted after us: do you want to play the devil with the whole house? That's when we realized: if we shot and killed someone, then all of the residents of the house would've become hostages and they would've been executed.
— A. Agafonov
We were running towards the park where corpses of the executed were.
And at that time, we had a desperate thought — revenge.
We were running towards the park where corpses of the executed were. And at that time, we had a desperate thought - revenge. There were trucks often passing through the Krasnoarmeyskaya street. Despite the freezing weather, motorcycles were passing as well. Under a cap or a helmet, they tied up their heads with a scarf. We climbed to the third floor, mounted a machine gun on the site which we found in the communications regiment. Started to argue about who will be shooting. Suddenly, Pashka Kostin, he was the most desperate one, wasting no time grabbed the machine gun. Nobody argued with him, because he might have as well box the ear.

Just we were about to wait for a motorcycle, a door on the upper floor opened and a man came out of the door. He realized what was going on there in a moment. He fell upon us, without picking up his words. The idea we had was: we start shooting and run up to the attic. Attics were interconnected thorough the whole huge house. We could've got out somewhere on Voroshilovskiy. It looked as if we secured ourselves, though didn't expect this man to appear. We ran downwards as he was blocking the upstairs. And we, indeed, left the machine gun. He took it. Cursing he shouted after us: do you want to play the devil with the whole house? That's when we realized: if we shot and killed someone, then all of the residents of the house would've become hostages and they would've been executed.
— A. Agafonov
We were running towards the park where corpses of the executed were. And at that time, we had a desperate thought — revenge.
The first occupation was sudden. Our family was not able to evacuate and, in the morning, we went out to the balcony. And saw a running Red Army soldier, a boy who was taking off his tunic on the run. He threw his rifle through the fence as well. He was alone, apparently a survivor. He run across the Gorkogo street, and literally after fifteen minutes a column of German motorcycles appeared. There were no less than 50 of them. They all were well-equipped, in helmets, with guns. The impression of this was terrible — poor, torn-apart Red Army soldier and this mechanized, well-armored, powerful column. The feeling was: superhuman arrived, and it will last forever.
— L. Grigoryan
Мы бегали в парк, где лежали трупы расстрелянных.
И у нас родилась тогда отчаянная мысль — отомстить.
The first time we saw Germans was on the corner of the Krasnoarmeyskaya and Voroshilovskiy. It was a motorcycle column. A motorcyclist with an assault rifle sat at the wheel while a machine gunner was in a sidecar body. We had our eyes open wide. We stood as a group: Mishka Guschin, Leonid Zakryzhevskiy and others. We were almost fourteen, already teens. The day was very cold, freezing. Skies covered with dark clouds. And all of that was adding to depressing impression.

One motorcyclist grinned; his grin seemed scary to me. And he shouted: "Stalinjugend". We already knew what Hitlerjugend means. He laughed and showed us: "Poof-poof"... And then, with no jokes, he turned the machine gun turret towards us and fired a burst above our heads. We burst out like sparrows. And immediately got inside the yard. We were choked by a boyish anger: if only we could respond with a rock! A dead-end hatred is especially painful...
— A. Agafonov
And then, with no jokes, he turned the machine gun turret towards us and fired a burst above our heads
On November 21, the second day of occupation, in Novoye poseleniye - the district we were living in, stores were still selling bread in exchange to our tickets. What were the sellers doing with the money afterwards though? There was already nobody to hand the money over to. This also was a sign of a suddenness of the entry of Germans into the city. Germans were held back in the area of Chkalov and Ordzhonikidze villages. They, on the other hand, entered to the city from Khapry, Western junction, through Krasniy city-garden, Botanical garden, went to the station and Novoye poseleniye district. Germans posted orders right away: for weapon storage - execution, for disobeying the occupation authorities - execution, all Jews must re-register. We found out from Germans that there are battles near Moscow in Khimki area, our media never informed us about this. And we never knew that Leningrad is in a blockade for two months already.
— Mikhail Vdovin
NOVEMBER 1941
НОЯБРЬ 1941
On November 27, first divisions of the 56th army forced the Don overice and burst into Rostov, where ferocious urban warfare took place. On November 29, units of the 37th army breached the German defenses and entered the area north to Sultan-Saly, on the other side, 56th army overtook the control of Chaltyr. The same day, after a three-day urban warfare, divisions of the 56th and 9th armies liberated Rostov-on-Don completely.
Shagan Chagaev
Offencive of Soviet army
witness of Rostov's liberation
Defense line of the Wehrmacht
On November 27, first divisions of the 56th army forced the Don overice and burst into Rostov, where ferocious urban warfare took place. On November 29, units of the 37th army breached the German defenses and entered the area north to Sultan-Saly, on the other side, 56th army overtook the control of Chaltyr. The same day, after a three-day urban warfare, divisions of the 56th and 9th armies liberated Rostov-on-Don completely.
Shagan Chagaev
Offencive of Soviet army
witness of Rostov's liberation
Defense line of the Wehrmacht
The first day our soldiers entered the city, a note of the Peoples' Commissariat of Internal Affairs signed by Molotov was released: "On brutal behavior of Nazi-German occupants in Rostov-on-Don" and leaflets: Particularly, the execution of Viya Cherevichkin - a 14-year-old boy from trade school, was reported in the note.

I saw the executed Vitya Cherevichkin, we've been to the spot. However, he wasn't executed on the spot indicated in the leaflet. He was executed in the park named after Frunze. And he was older. That I discovered later, when collecting materials about him for my novel. Back then, we just saw him lying without a headwear as if leaning towards a wall. Bullets ripped patches out of his cotton-padded jacked. He was holding a decapitated pigeon on his hand. Corpses of other pigeons were lying next to him. Later he became legendary. One of the streets was named after him, and a song - "There once lived Vitya Cherevichkin" was composed. Motion picture images and documentary photographs about him were featured at the Nuremberg trials.
— A. Agafonov
Warfare on the streets of Rostov.
Rostov offensive operation
The result of the Rostov offensive operation on November 29, 1941 Rostov was liberated

Residents of Rostov saluting liberators in November, 1941
Residents of Rostov saluting liberators in November, 1941
WEHRMACHT
RED ARMY
30 000
33 111
Staff
154
54
Tanks